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Tea culture in China - the processing methods of four types of tea
Tea processing is the manufacture of tea. In order to understand the essence of tea processing, it is necessary to grasp the following basic concepts. The traditional Chinese tea making method of tea is divided into two processes: initial production and refining. The initial production of tea is the process of making dry tea from a series of manufacturing processes by collecting fresh tea leaves (also known as tea). The manufacturing process is different, the tea leaves are not the same, which is the key to the formation of different teas. That is to say, the same fresh leaf material uses different tea making processes to form different teas.
Maocha: A tea product formed by the initial production of tea. Because it is generally hairy, it is called Maocha.
Tea refining: It is the further processing and finishing of dry-haired tea. This processing includes the process of sub-division, air-selection, re-fire cutting, sorting, homogenization and packing. In the end, the refining process is carried out so that the tea is neat and consistent with the specifications of the various grades of commercial tea. Different teas have different requirements, and there are simple and complicated.
Refined tea: A product formed after the tea is refined by tea. Because it has the same appearance specifications and meets the requirements of product standards, it is also called fine tea.
Commodity tea: usually refers to all grades of tea that have reached the product standard after refining. But there are also on the market today.
Hairy tea or tea that is marketed by simple sorting. Therefore, the commercial tea can be refined tea or Maocha.
Tea product standards: According to the state regulations, all kinds of commodity teas must have approved product standards. The tea product standard includes the product name, quality specifications, and the requirements for the quality of the appearance. Usually, the number of the product standard must be indicated on the tea packaging.
Tea reprocessing: Reprocessing is carried out using the prepared tea as a raw material. The method of reprocessing includes rich flowers, swallow pressure, splicing and some Chinese herbal medicines or juice flavors. The product formed by reprocessing is called reprocessed tea, such as forming a pressed tea by forming a flower tea by steaming, forming a concentrated tea and instant tea by adding, forming a health tea by adding some Chinese herbal medicine, and forming a fruit by adding juice or spice. Flavored tea or spice tea and so on.
1. Processing of green tea
The basic process of processing green tea is: drying a simmer (formation) and drying.
Killing is the use of high temperature to inhibit enzyme activity, so that the tea leaves remain green, forming the green tea clear soup green leaf quality characteristics: At the same time, the use of high temperature to remove grass gas to form tea fragrance: also use high temperature to remove a part of the water, make the leaves soft, is conducive to smashing or Shape.
It is usually used for steaming or steaming, and it is also useful for steaming. The degree of killing should be properly controlled, the lack of killing, the enzyme activity can not be inhibited in time, the tea polyphenols continue to oxidize, the lighter leaves are yellowish, and the heavy ones are likely to cause the red stalks to be smashed, usually by using a smashing machine. The cells are damaged, and the leaf juice is attached to the leaf surface to facilitate the dissolution of the water-soluble contents in the tea soup when brewing.
The cockroaches make the leaves smashed into strips, which is a method of shaping the strips and straight green tea. There are also many famous green teas that are not simmered. For example, the fan-shaped Longjing tea is only flattened in the pot while frying. The orchid-shaped Taiping Monkey and the Jiangshan Green Peony are also gently patted in the pot for shaping. The tea leaves that need to be simmered should be appropriate, and the amount of leaves should be too large, which is easy to cause loose, flat and broken. Drying is a process of setting and forming aroma, and drying is carried out in a pot and a dryer. There are a lot of recorded teas that are shaped while drying in the drying process. For example, the pearl tea is curled into a bead shape in the frying dryness, and the biluo spring is also curled into a snail shape in the side bake. The famous green teas in various poses are formed by different shaping methods in the drying process. The temperature should be appropriate when dry, and the temperature is too high to produce color yellow and coke tea.
2. Processing of white tea
The basic process of processing white tea is: withering and drying. After the fresh leaves of the silver-silver needles are harvested, the tea buds are separated from the leaves. This process is called needle-pulling, the tea buds are made of silver needles, and the leaves are made of eyebrows. Withering is to take the thin leaves, make the leaves slowly lose water, the leaves become soft, and form a tea fragrance. The method of tempering is two kinds of ways: the sun is withering and the indoor natural withering.
Drying is a process of further dehydration and shaping that can be dried or dried.
3. Processing of yellow tea
The basic process of processing yellow tea is: killing a simmering yellow - dry. Different yellow tea manufacturing processes are different. Yellow bud tea, such as Junshan silver needle, generally does not pass through the sputum. It is only used after the sapling, and after losing some water, it is smothered with brown tea and finally dried. Hubei's yellow tea Yuanan Lufan, after a little cool after the killing, then go to the pot to 70% dry, then carry the stuffy pile to yellow, and finally fry.
4. Processing of black tea
The basic process of black tea processing is: withered or simmered and fermented - dry. Withering is the process of losing water and preparing for shaping. The method of withering has three kinds of indoor withering, daylight withering, and withering and troughing, and warming withering. The indoor natural rhyme is generally of good quality.
Cutting is a process of shaping, and black tea needs to be cut into strips, while red drunk tea needs to be cut into small pieces. The chopping machine has a rotor-cutting machine like a meat machine, and some double-cranked CTC tea-cutting machines. The black tea is full and long, and the pine noodles are not tight. The light fermentation is the key process for the formation of black tea. The green leaves pass through the hair, and the tea polyphenols are oxidized and polymerized under the oxidation of polyphenols. Theaflavins and tea red make the leaves change, forming the knot of red soup and red leaves, and the degree of fermentation should be just right.